Fleshing Out the Evidence: From Archaic Dog Burials to Historic Dog Feasts
Author: CATH OBERHOLTZER
Page Range: 3 – 14
Abstract: Archaeological evidence derived from, and associated with, dog burials dating from the Archaic and Woodland periods suggests that this precontact rite of sacrificing dogs represents a continuum that culminates in the dog feasts observed in the post-contact period. By fleshing out the archaeological and ethnographic records with the eye-witness accounts of nineteenth-century missionaries serving amongst the northern Algonquians of Ontario and Manitoba, it can be confirmed that dog feasts became incorporated as a rite within the Midewiwin complex of ceremonies. From this conclusion it can be inferred that the increased complexities of the Midewiwin or Medicine Society are elaborations of substantive indigenous practices and thus pre-date any European influences.
A Revised Temporal Framework for Middle Woodland Ceramics in South-Central Ontario
Author: JENNETH E. CURTIS
Page Range: 15 – 28
Abstract: Analysis of ceramic collections from key Middle Woodland sites in the Rice Lake-Trent River region, in combination with recent excavations, has documented a regional sequence along which changes in ceramic manufacture and decoration may be observed. I propose a division of this sequence into three temporal phases of the local Point Peninsula tradition, thus providing a framework for the investigation and interpretation of Middle Woodland sites within the region. This paper introduces each phase, describing characteristic ceramic attributes along with relevant data concerning settlement patterns, subsistence practices, and chronology. The relationships of this Middle Woodland sequence to earlier and later periods are also considered.
Limited Activity and Low Visibility Remains in the Middle Trent Valley: Wishin’ and Hopin’ at the West Burleigh Bay Site
Author: SUSAN M. JAMIESON
Page Range: 29 – 37
Abstract: Located on the edge of the Canadian Shield in the middle Trent Valley, the West Burleigh Bay site (BdGn-12) is a cluster of limited activity loci having low archaeological visibility. Recent excavations at the site have revealed an 12,500-year cultural sequence that is an important contribution to our understanding of poorly known local and regional developments. At the same time, archaeological remains from the site provide a cautionary tale regarding how we identify, classify and interpret Middle and Late Woodland ceramics from eastern Shield sites having stratigraphically and culturally mixed components and/or highly fragmented sherd samples.
Wa-nant-git-che-ang: Canoe Route to Lake Huron through Southern Algonquia
Author: WILLIAM ARTHUR ALLEN
Page Range: 38 – 68
Abstract: The Severn River, its tributaries, and adjacent river systems, are centrally located in the Great Lakes watershed. The river, known to the Anishinaabeg as Wa-nant-git-che-ang, the circuitous river, forms an important travel corridor through central Ontario. Archaeological evidence, early historical records, Anishinaabe oral tradition, and place names all contribute vitally to knowledge of aboriginal use of this waterway and its region, defined here as southern Algonquia. The cross-disciplinary nature of this evidence will require a major study, with commitments by scholars from different fields, to further our understanding of this region.
Building Bridges From a Mnjikaning Fish Fence Circle Perspective
Author: JANET TURNER
Page Range: 69 – 75
Abstract: In September 2002, the Mnjikaning Fish Fence Circle launched an exciting new educational video ‘Journey to the Fish Weirs’, at the annual gathering of the Simcoe County Historical Association in Orillia Ontario. By bringing together First Nations people, historians, archaeologists, environmentalists, and elected officials to celebrate the importance of an ancient and sacred place, this educational initiative did indeed bridge cultural divides. Ontario’s newly-appointed Lieutenant Governor, himself a person of Aboriginal heritage, set the tone for the day’s celebrations.
Underwater Archaeology and the Future of Submerged Cultural Resources on the Trent-Severn Waterway
Author: WILLIS STEVENS
Page Range: 76 – 78
Abstract: Work is beginning on a comprehensive inventory of submerged archaeological resources along the Trent-Severn Waterway National Historic Site of Canada. This paper describes the development pressures and attendant cultural resource management issues that arise in trying to protect sites and mitigate threats.
Aboriginal Youth Week Comes to Camp: Partners in History, Culture, and Environment at Georgian Bay Islands National Park of Canada
Author: BRIAN ROSS AND SHERYL SMITH
Page Range: 79 – 84
Abstract: Beginning in 2000, Grade 7 and 8 Aboriginal children, teachers, and resource people have gathered for a week each September for holistic learning on Beausoleil Island, part of Georgian Bay Islands National Park of Canada. Our partners, local First Nations and Aboriginal communities and the Midland YMCA Camp Kitchikewana, take students on a journey through activities designed to enhance their knowledge of, and appreciation for, their history and culture. Archaeology plays a role in helping that happen.
The State of Archaeology and First Nations
Author: R. KRIS NAHRGANG
Page Range: 85 – 93
Abstract: The state of Ontario archaeology and its relations with First Nations communities is criminal! Did all archaeologists train to be consultants only? Where is the research? Must we walk ever faster over fields seeking only the larger sites? Are we solely the products of the developers environment? Is this what archaeologists train for? These are some of the questions that come to mind when I think of archaeologists.
Archaeology and Policing
Author: GREGORY O. OLSON
Page Range: 94 – 98
Abstract: Since the beginning of time, ways have been invented to disguise crime. The role of police agencies around the world is to investigate this crime, firstly by deduction and, now secondly with the aid of science. Badly mismanaged crime scenes have placed pressure on law enforcement agencies to develop special expertise in locating, identifying, and recovering human remains. In response to this need, the York Regional Police has formed the first Archaeological Forensic Recovery Team in Canada, a team comprised entirely of police officers. In addition to their police training, these individuals are schooled in archaeology, osteology, entomology, and forensic anthropology. This particular blend of investigative skills coupled with forensic science and archaeological techniques create a unique ‘hybrid’ criminal investigator. The Archaeological Forensic Recovery Team has successfully applied archaeological methodologies to scenes of homicides, robberies, sexual assaults, and other crimes. Some examples of this application are described here.