Iroquois Settlement at Fort Frontenac in the Seventeenth and Early Eighteenth Centuries
Author: ADAMS, N.
Page Range: 5 – 20
Abstract: Cartographic and documentary sources provide abundant evidence that an Iroquois village grew up in the vicinity of Fort Frontenac during the last quarter of the seventeenth century and continued to exist throughout most of the French Period (1673-1758). This paper examines these sources to assess the village and its relationship to both the fort and prevailing Iroquois settlement patterns of the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries.
An In-house Infant Burial at the Benson Sit
Author: RAMSDEN, P. G., & S. R. SAUNDERS
Page Range: 21 – 25
Abstract: An infant burial in a longhouse at the protohistoric Benson Site in the upper Trent river valley suggests the existence in the late 16th century of some childbirth-related practices described by Sagard in Huronia one or two generations later. It also gives rise to the suggestion that not all in-house burials were expressions of a conscious burial pattern.
Growth Arrest Lines among Uxbridge Ossuary Juveniles
Author: PFEIFFER, S., K. STEWART, & C. ALEX
Page Range: 27 – 31
Abstract: Immature right tibial diaphyses from the Uxbridge Ossuary (N= 66) were radiographed in order to determine the proportion which showed growth arrest (Harris) lines. Ages were estimated from diaphysis length. Measurements of bone cortex development (percent cortical area) were compared between diaphyses which show such lines and those which do not. Thirty diaphyses show one or more lines of growth arrest. Growth arrest lines are very rare among infants (1/23), most common at ages 0.5 – 8.5 years, reaching 90% of all tibiae in the 4.5 – 8.5 year category. Lines are most numerous among the affected tibiae of ages 0.5 – 4.5 years (2.7 lines/diaphysis). At ages 0.5 – 8.5 years, diaphyses with growth arrest lines have significantly lower percent cortical area than those without lines. The childhood mortality profile constructed from diaphysis length age estimates is very similar to that previously constructed from dental emergence. Thirty five percent of juvenile mortality is represented by newborns.
Models for Prehistoric Exchange in the Middle Great Lakes’ Basin
Author: REID, P
Page Range: 33 – 44
Abstract: Various models of the distance decay of exchange are applied to the distributions of Kettle Point chert in Archaic, Early/Middle Woodland, and Late Woodland times, and to that of Bayport chert in late prehistoric times. The results, when not equivocal, are not dramatically different from those obtainable by more traditional methods of analysis.
Dental and Skeletal Age Determinations of Ontario Iroquois Infant burials
Author: SAUNDERS, S. R., & M. W. SPENCE
Page Range: 45 – 54
Abstract: Forty articulated infant burials from nine Late Woodland Iroquoian sites were examined dentally and skeletally for their biological age estimates. We offer a detailed chart of the stages of dental calcification for all deciduous teeth of these burials which should allow future researchers narrower age estimates of infant burials, particularly fragmentary ones. Estimates of age based on diaphyseal length measurements are comparable to a larger study of Arikara skeletons but again allow finer estimates of age in the infant category. It is possible to identify a concentration of individuals who probably died at or just after the birth event. However, the existence of this ‘birth size concentration’ is probably not due to demographic factors but to human social factors and mortuary practices.
Analysis of the Clay Tobacco Pipe Assemblage From the Front Street Site (AjGu-15), Toronto
Author: SMITH, R. H.
Page Range: 55 – 61
Abstract: The clay tobacco pipe assemblage consisting of 222 pieces from three seasons of archaeological investigation at the Front Street site (AjGu-15), Toronto, Ontario is analyzed. A new series of dates for the Montreal pipe industry is advanced and a use-wear analysis of the Front Street assemblage presented in an attempt to refine the way in which pipes are examined by historic archaeologists. Chronologically, the Front Street assemblage falls within the period of occupation of the Parliament Buildings and presents some interesting anomalies in terms of the origin of some of the pipes and in the number of Canadian-made pipes.
An Unusual 19th Century Portrait Pipe from Northern Ontario
Author: CONWAY, T.
Page Range: 63 – 72
Abstract: An unusual portrait pipe from a 19th century site in the upper Great Lakes is described. The effigy pipe tradition is reviewed using examples from other North American sites. Evidence suggests that the pipe may be a French product that arrived by way of American trade networks. This inference is used to help interpret the origins of the 19th century component associated with the portrait pipe.