Biological Affinities Among Ohio and Great Lakes Archaic Amerindians: A Multivariate Analysis Based on Cranial Morphology
Author: SCHNEIDER, K. N., & P. W. SCIULLI
Page Range: 3 – 8
Abstract: Discontinuous traits of the cranium are used in a comparison of six Archaic skeletal samples from the Great Lakes region and six northern Ohio Late Archaic (Glacial Kame) skeletal samples. The Smith-Grewal measure of divergence with the Freeman-Tukey transformation is used to establish biologic distances among the populations represented by the samples. Principal coordinates analysis is used as a clustering method. This study proposes a provisional hypothesis concerning the biologic relationships of these populations. The Ohio Late Archaic samples and the Great Lakes Archaic samples demonstrate short relative intra-regional biologic distance, and the Ohio Late Archaic samples show affinity to two Great Lakes Archaic samples. Port au Choix and Cole Gravel Pit. Lack of temporal and spatial continuity between these two major clusters suggest limited genetic exchange and a possible ancestor-descendant relationship. In addition, significant biologic variation exists at a local level for each cluster, thus these data do not support the establishment of a ‘physical type’ for either the Ohio or Great Lakes samples.
Demographic Parameters of the Uxbridge Ossuary Population
Author: PFEIFFER, S.
Page Range: 9 – 14
Abstract: The minimum number, probable age and sex of individuals included in the Uxbridge Ossuary (BbGt-1) has been determined using dental and pelvic indicators. The site is in southern Ontario and C14 dated to AD 1490 ± 80. The minimum of 457 individuals include 145 (32%) that are immature, aged by dental emergence. The adult pelvic material yielded age-at-death information, but the skewed sex ratio (1.5:1.0), cremation and evidence of particular infectious disease factors make these values suspect. It is argued that extensive paleodemographic reconstruction would be inappropriate.
The People of the Ball Site
Author: MELBYE, J.
Page Range: 15 – 36
Abstract: The biological status of the first six burials from the Ball Site, a Late Ontario Iroquois site, are summarized. While ossuaries have produced large samples, these are largely disarticulated ‘populations of bones’ rather than populations of people. The presence of relatively complete and articulated skeletons is important for setting and testing standards for ossuary studies. The data are presented as completely as possible because the skeletons have been reburied according to the agreement with the local native band council. The bases of determining age, sex, stature, bone pathology, dental status, dental attrition, caries, periodontal infection and abscessing are presented for each burial. Metrical and morphological observations of adults are presented and discussed. A new case of spinal tuberculosis is tentatively diagnosed. Relatively new methods of age determination of subadults by diaphyseal length and of adults by dental attrition are attempted. These latter two methods are probably ‘population specific’ to the Ontario Iroquois.
Burial Patterns at the Ball Site
Author: KNIGHT, D., & J. MELBYE
Page Range: 37 – 48
Abstract: The archaeological context of six burials from the Ball Site, a Late Ontario Iroquois site, is described, and the physical anthropological data are integrated. Ethnohistoric and archaeological data are reviewed to present two hypotheses regarding mortuary customs surrounding sub-floor interments in the protohistoric period.
St. Lawrence Iroquoian Burial Practices
Author: PENDERGAST, J. F.
Page Range: 49 – 56
Abstract: The paucity of graves on the Roebuck prehistoric St Lawrence Iroquoian village, relative to the estimated peak population of approximately 2,000 over a 12 to 20 year life span, is noted. The preponderance of females in the adult grave population is examined and explanations are suggested to account for the very few adult male graves present.