The Canadian Institute and the Origins of the Ontario Archaeological Tradition, 1851-1884
Author: KILLAN, G.
Page Range: 3 – 16
Abstract: Although David Boyle (1842-1911) is credited with fully developing the Classificatory-Descriptive Period of Ontario archaeology after 1884, his precursors at the Canadian Institute laid the foundation for a scientific archaeological tradition in Ontario. Between 1851 and 1884 Institute members tried to replace the purely speculative and antiquarian approach to archaeology by articulating a scientific rationale for the emerging discipline, by introducing advanced methods and procedures, and by opening the pages of the Canadian Journal to those influences giving rise to a scientific archaeology on both sides of the Atlantic. The first attempts to establish an Ontario archaeological museum and to undertake site inventory also occurred in this period.
The Satchell Complex in Ontario: A Perspective from the Ausable Valley
Author: KENYON, I. T.
Page Range: 17 – 43
Abstract: The Satchell complex is characterized by the presence of lanceolate and straight stemmed bifaces (blades may range from narrow to broad) that are made of greywacke, a coarse grained rock. In Ontario, stemmed greywacke bifaces are almost invariably associated with chert points of similar forms. The Ontario distribution of Satchell is confined to the extreme southwestern portion of the province; the complex is also found in adjacent areas of the United States. In this paper the greywacke bifaces are considered to be Late Archaic with a temporal placement sometime in the second millenium B.C. Satchell may be a local expression of the widely spread Broadpoint horizon. In particular, comparisons can be made between Satchell and such ‘Broadpoint’ complexes as the Batten Kill phase of New York, Stalling’s Island of the American Southeast, and the Titterington phase of Illinois and Missouri. For the Ontario Satchell, the size of the straight stemmed points is conjectured to change through time: the broad-bladed forms, which may be patterned after the broadpoints of the Soumeastern United States, may be earlier than the narrow-bladed forms. The lanceolate bifaces have a more restricted spatial distribution than the stemmed points; the lanceolates appear to be most common in the American Midwest and the south-central Great Lakes. Many of the Ontario greywacke lanceolates have a distinctive use-wear pattern on their tips suggesting they may not be projectile points but some other tool type.
The MacGillivray Site: A Laurel Tradition Site in Northwestern Ontario
Author: DAWSON, K. C. A.
Page Range: 45 – 68
Abstract: This report describes and analyzes excavated materials from a habitation and mound site in northwestern Ontario located southwest of Thunder Bay. The habitation is assigned to the late Initial Woodland period (circa A.D. 700 to A.D. 900), while the mound predated the habitation and is assigned to the early Initial Woodland period (circa 200 B.C. to A.D. 300). The site was occupied by a semi-distinct group of Laurel peoples who had southwestern affinities in contrast to the northeastern Ontario Laurel sites where southeastern affinities prevailed.
Ash Rapids Corded: Newly Defined Late Woodland Ceramics from Northwestern Ontario
Author: REID, C. S., & G. RAJNOVICH
Page Range: 69 – 86
Abstract: A newly defined prehistoric ceramic form is identified on 11 sites in the Lake of the Woods – Rainy Lake area of northwestern Ontario, characterized by thin-walled vertical intertwined cord impressed (or cord-wrapped paddle) vessels with short straight rims, unthickened lips, obtuse-angled necks and gently rounded shoulders. The vessel from the type site, Ash Rapids West (DjKq-5), is radiocarbon dated at A.D. 1230 ± 125 and the ceramics have affinites to several previously described types from the Plains and from woodland areas adjacent to the Plains. The name Ash Rapids Corded is assigned on the basis of the type site and the most distinctive visual attribute.