Editorial: Access to the Past
Author: ALEXANDER VON GERNET
Page Range: 1 – 3
Abstract: No Abstract
A History of the Native People of Canada: Genesis of a Synthesis
Author: J.V. WRIGHT
Page Range: 4 – 9
Abstract: No Abstract
Murphy: An Early Palaeo-Indian Gainey Phase Site in Southwestern Ontario
Author: LAWRENCE J. JACKSON
Page Range: 10 – 38
Abstract: The Murphy site (AeHk-1) is a small Gainey phase Early Palaeo-Indian camp near Alvinston in southwestern Ontario. Excavated in 1990, the site provides important new evidence of activity area separation and functional differences in Gainey phase settlement systems. Located more than 200 km southwest of a Collingwood (Fossil Hill Formation) chert source, Murphy strongly supports Gainey phase mobility patterns proposed for other sites in southern Ontario. The Murphy site lithics significantly strengthen Deller and Ellis’ (1988) case for a suite of Gainey phase Early Paleo-Indian diagnostics.
The Early Archaic Occupation of the Laphroaig Site, Brant County, Ontario
Author: PHILLIP J. WOODLEY
Page Range: 39 – 62
Abstract: Laphroaig is primarily a late Early Archaic bifurcate base point site located along the Grand River, in southwestern Ontario. The excavation recovered a light scatter of material, including parts of four bifurcate base projectile points in a nine by seven metre area. A comparison of select attributes for bifurcate base projectile points from a number of sites in Ontario and New York State suggests that it is difficult to assign these points to specific types, although their range in size suggests subtle morphological change through time. The site size, structure and artifact assemblage suggest a small, long term winter or early spring occupation, presumably by an extended family or band. It is proposed that some late Early Archaic bands occupied regional territories,never traveling far from known resources.
Boreal Forest Fire Ecology and Archaeological Site Formation: An Example from Northern Ontario
Author: ANDREW HINSHELWOOD
Page Range: 63 – 92
Abstract: Forest fire is a major factor contributing to the collapsed stratigraphy observed on many boreal forest archaeological sites. Intense forest fire occurs in many boreal forest stand types on a sixty to eighty year cycle, with maximum stand age being approximately 250 years. During intense fire events most of the available fuel, including organics from the forest floor, is consumed. This results in the exposure of the mineral soil in large portions of the burned area and a clear discontinuity between the mineral and organic soil as the latter unit reforms. This periodic burning of sites means that any artifacts which are deposited on the surface, or are buried within the humus, will fall to the surface of the mineral soil. Excavations at Wunnumin Lake suggest that repeated fire episodes will result in the accumulation of artifacts at the surface of the mineral soil, and that some heat fracturing of lithics will occur. Artifact patterning at Ffjh-1 suggests that, despite the collapsed stratigraphy, the basic spatial arrangement of the artifacts is preserved, although some heat spalled artifacts may become scattered over wider areas.